Category: Health

Jatropha Bio Energy Crop}

By | September 4, 2017

Submitted by: Aumkii Pure

Jatropha is the plant with many potential benefits. As the fossil fuels are declining rapidly and the carbon dioxide emission emitted from it pollutes the atmosphere, the world is working towards an alternative fuel to overcome it.

The Jatropha curcas is the plant which can grow in semi arid region, little care is enough for its growth. It grows both in topical and sub tropical region. The jatropha seed contains 35 percent oil content in it. The oil from jatropha can be used as biodiesel blend up to 20% without refining. The oil burns with clear smoke-free flame, and was tested successfully as a fuel for simple diesel engine. It is not a food crop since the oil is non-edible. The oil is used as a traditional medicine disinfectant and to cure diseases like cancer, piles, snakebite, paralysis dropsy etc. The seed oil is also used for lighting and in soap preparation. It is rarely used as a live fence in preventing crops from livestock and it occasionally used as property demarcation. It reduces the soil erosion.

The optimum growing conditions for the Jatropha plant ranges from 1000 to1500 mm annual rainfall, with temperatures of 20 to 28 C. The soil should be free draining with no water logging. But adequate water and nutrition is a must for high yield. The jatropha is easy to grow and it can bear the seeds within a year of planting. It provides oxygen for the planet and it can grow even in poor soil. It cannot withstand frost.

The Jatropha Electrification is developing in many countries. Mali is considered to be one of the poorest countries in the world. At Mali, Garalo Jatropha Producers’ Cooperative (CPP) and the power company ACCESS are the main institutions developing jatropha cultivation. The private power company ACCESS is generates and does electricity sales. Currently 247 households are connected to the micro grid after a payment of $30 as a contribution to the connection costs. Likewise in India, the Rural Electricity Supply Technology (REST) mission of the Ministry of Power (MOP) planning to produce power for all by 2012. The small scale power generation projects were established in Chattisgarh, India. It is being run by Winrock International in the Kabir Dham district. This small power system provides 24-hour power supply at the very affordable price of 50 cents per light bulb to poor villagers. It is 17.5 KW capacity power plant runs on raw jatropha seed oil .Jatropha is a promising crop for rural development. The jatropha oil lights up rural areas with electricity. The jatropha planting on the wastelands has the ability to provide 50-60% of the Indias fuel requirements.

The Jatropha curcas plantation in 1 hectare reduces 20 tons of carbon dioxide per year. The largest jatropha producing country in Asia will be Indonesia and India. In Africa, Ghana and Madagascar will be the largest producers. Brazil will be the largest producer in Latin America. The plantation is a labor intensive process hence it creates job for many poor rural people. Above all Jatropha can be used as a Renewable Energy.

About the Author: Michael John is an expert author for Jatropha social investment, Light hydrocarbon fuel, Pure Energy, Renewable Energy . He has written many articles on Jatropha. For more information visit the site

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Varicocele Surgery Options}

By | January 31, 2017

Submitted by: Bob Maloney

There are three types of surgery and one so called non surgical procedure. The three surgeries all involve surgical ligation, i.e. surgery to tie off the faulty veins.

I. Varicocelectomy (Conventional Open Surgery)

In a conventional varicocelectomy the doctor makes a two or three inch incision below the groin area or in the abdomen. He goes in and ties off the offending veins. This procedure is performed on an outpatient basis (i.e. no overnight hospital stay) using general or spinal anesthesia.

You may need to avoid strenuous activity for several days or even weeks after surgery. Most men are able to go back to work within three to four days.

This is the most common procedure. You may have a hard time finding a doctor who can do one of the other procedures.

Complications include hydrocele (fluid around the testicle) and infection.

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There is about a 20% chance that the varicocele will recur because some of the smaller veins are not identified and are missed during surgery. There is about a 5% risk of hydrocele formation – a collection of fluid around the testicles, because lymph vessels are indirectly tied off too, so that more fluid is accumulated. There is also a risk of damage to the testicular artery that supplies blood to the testicles, which means that your testicles will shrivel up and die and youll be singing soprano like a girlie man. There will be a scar similar to an appendectomy scar.

Often the surgeon will make the incision in the abdomen rather than the groin because there are fewer blood vessels at this level and they are large and therefore easily identifiable. However, recent anatomic studies have shown that ligation at this level may miss some lateral drainage veins, resulting in a higher failure rate and higher recurrence rates.

II. Microsurgery

Microsurgery (also called microsurgical ligation) is a procedure in which a smaller incision is made. The doctor only cuts the skin and fatty tissue. Because he does not cut the muscle, there is less pain and a faster recovery. The doctor identifies the varicoceles (swollen veins) through an operating microscope. Large varicoceles are cut and stapled closed. Smaller varicoceles are cut and stitched shut. The operation takes less than an hour and recovery time is short.

The microscope enables better identification of the artery that brings blood to the testicles and preservation of the lymphatics, eliminating the risk of hydrocele (accumulation of fluid around the testicles) after surgery. This procedure has a higher success rate, fewer complications, and leaves a smaller scar.

The operation takes about 45 minutes for a varicocele on one side of the scrotum, 1.5 hours if the varicocele involves both sides.

III. Laparoscopy

This is similar to conventional open surgery and the incision is usually made on the abdomen. High ligations (i.e. in the abdominal area rather than the groin) in open surgery require either large incisions or small incisions with significant retraction (i.e. pulling the veins out of the body), both of which can result in increased postoperative pain and infection.

There is a relatively high incidence of arterial injury while making the incision and a greater incidence of hydroceles following laparoscopy.

IV. Coil Embolization, Radiologic Balloon Occlusion or Radiologic Ablation

This is referred to as a minor procedure or a non-surgical procedure. It is is not very commonly performed. A steel coil or silicone balloon catheter is inserted into a vein on the leg below the groin and passed under X-ray guidance to the testicular vein. Alternatively, pure alcohol is injected into the veins, causing them to become nonfunctional. After the procedure, the catheter (a small tube) is removed and no stitches are needed.

This procedure is performed on an outpatient basis and requires no incision, stitches, general anesthesia or overnight admission to the hospital. Several studies have shown that embolization is just as effective as surgery. Patients return to full activities in a day or two. Some complications of surgery, such as hydrocele (fluid around that testicle) and infection are virtually unheard of.

Minor complications such as bruising at the catheter site, nausea or backache may occur, but are uncommon. Infection, hydrocele or loss of a testicle have not been reported after coil embolization. However, there is a danger that the coil could migrate to the heart and cause death. Perhaps this is why this procedure is rarely performed. Also, it is more expensive, less effective and has a higher rate of recurrence (5-11%).

It requires a significant degree of technical expertise, and may not be doable in as many as 30% of patients. Radiation exposure during the procedure may be harmful to the testicles. The amount of radiation exposure is about equal to the amount received during a chest x-ray.

About the Author: Bob Maloney speaks from the heart about varicoceles, having suffered himself from this affliction. Learn how he overcame his at times debilitating varicocele without surgery and today lives pain free.

Varicocele Pain Relief


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